Jewish theodicy is not stagnant and is not easily explained. Christians have generally held fast to the belief that God is just and fair and blames tragedy on Satan, who is essentially God's evil counterpart. The Jewish religion, however, does not have a Satan or a devil. God alone is responsible for everything or for nothing.
Evolution of Jewish theodicy
Jewish theodicy has changed throughout the years, and, even now, rabbis and scholars do not agree on a single concept of theodicy. At some points in history, Jewish theodicy was similar to Christian theodicy in that tragedy was blamed on an evil force or considered retribution for sin on the part of those experiencing the tragedy or their kin. Another common theodicy accepted by Jewish scholars was that God created man with both good and bad energies. Man, then, was responsible for channeling bad energies into positive pursuits, thereby negating the argument that God was responsible for the choices of man.
Current Jewish theodicy
The most prevailing Jewish theodicy today is that God is not omnipotent. He is the creator, is God, but is not capable of intervening to stop evil from occurring. There are also rabbis who contend that God once was able or willing to involve himself in the day-to-day affairs of man but that he is no longer willing or able to do so.
Judaism is a constantly evolving religion. Jewish theodicy has changed a number of times throughout history and continues to evolve today. It is normal and expected in Judaism that scholars and rabbis disagree with each other on matters of theology and theodicy, and people continue to study, learn and theorize.